Find out how to install a gas water heater properly using the provided step-by-step guide and easy-to-use instructions. Explore the best location for the large cylinder, venting, and plumbing requirements, what tools are needed, and how to avoid problems.
State and local codes and manufacturer instructions must be followed during the gas water heater installation to ensure reliable and safe operation. One of them, for example, is an installation of the expansion tank on the incoming water supply line and in a closed heating system. Some codes also require a special license to connect the gas line to your heater, vacuum relief valve, venting regulations, and more.
Gas water heater installation is not an easy DIY job and can be very costly if not done correctly. For the proper installation and worry-free operation, you have to have some knowledge and experience to deal with the electricity, plumbing, and gas, including the building codes.
Also, if you are not comfortable with the installation, contact a local professional plumber today.
Either you are replacing an old or installing a new gas water heater, most of the required tools are found in almost any handyman home, and these include:
Before installing a gas water heater, you should carefully select an indoor location as its placement is crucial for the safety of the occupants, economical and efficient use of a unit. Keep in mind that the tank-type water heaters, as opposed to tankless, can only be installed indoors.
Your gas water heater should not be installed in the area where gas or water leakage from the water heating system can damage adjacent areas and lower floors and cause damage to the structure.
The risk of the water and gas leak, difficulties in maintaining, service, handle, removal and control, are the reasons why some plumbers do not recommend attic installation, even knowing that some homes (especially those with the slab foundation) already have it installed.
To ensure the proper water and gas flow, the floor where the unit will be standing must be on a level surface. Specific local codes might require a stand to raise a heater and provide a required clearance.
That is why it is essential to provide the correct drainage solution under the water heater, like a drain line or drain pans. Since the burner and air inlet are located in the lower part of the tank, your drainage solution must not restrict this entrance.
The selected location must provide adequate clearance for servicing and maintenance. Do not put the tank directly on the carpet, but slide the piece of metal or wood panel beneath if you have to.
During gas water heater installation, keep in mind that combustible and flammable products, like paint, propane, gasoline, should never be stored in the same room or close to the unit. Most modern water heaters are equipped with the FVIR system, which ensures that there will be no ignition of the flammable vapors outside the combustion chamber.
To reduce the energy waste and if the water line is too long, insulate the pipes to protect them from exposure to freezing temperatures. You can always wrap the heater with an insulated jacket or blanket and reduce the standby loss. Before you install the unit, make sure, if possible, to place it close to the most used application and a power source.
Install your tank-type gas water heater only in the designated room, not in the bathroom, bedrooms, or any unprotected outdoor location. You want to place your water heater close to the external wall to make room for the vent pipes. This is why garages, laundry rooms, and basements are good spots.
Install your gas water heater close to the external wall to ensure an unobstructed venting, short vent pipe run, and sufficient fresh air for the normal operation.
When installing a gas water heater in the confined space, two openings have to be made for adequate combustion and ventilation air intake. One opening is located 12" above the floor and the other 12" from the ceiling. The total free area of the opening depends on the heater's BTU.
Check also if the vent connectors are properly secured, flue baffle installed in the flue tube, connected to the chimney or vent pipe system, and at a safe distance from other combustible materials. Also, make sure they are supported with the metal hanger and at the specified distance. Do not operate the unit if the flue baffle is not installed. The manufacturer's instructions must be followed.
Note: The building code dictates venting requirements, either dealing with the power vented direct vent or atmospheric water heaters. It is required to install a unit per code, and with the potential problem that might arise, it is recommended to contact a professional technician.
If the vent kit is supplied with the water heater, it must be installed per the manufacturer's instructions, such as following the minimum rise, termination setup, sealing the vent kit joints, proper clearances, and others.
The vent pipes of the atmospheric type water heaters must provide an upward, natural movement of the hot air. The flue gases moved by the natural draft are directed from the combustion chamber through the draft diverter, metal vent pipe, chimney, and outdoors. If the house does not have a chimney or similar, using this type of heater can be expensive to install.
Proper venting depends on the pressure difference between the highest and lowest point on the vents, including the surrounding air pressure. Any obstruction leads to back drafting, gas spillage and exposure to carbon monoxide.
For the natural draft type water heater, it is recommended to use a galvanized steel pipe or preferably B-vent (double-wall vent pipe) secured to the draft hood with sheet metal screws. The size is usually 3" or 4", depending on the unit capacity.
The problem with the single wall vent pipe is that it might cause excessive condensation if used in colder areas (a garage, for example).
For the proper draft, the metal pipe between the heater and chimney must run upwards, rising not less than 0.25" per foot, and should be straight and as short as possible.
The surrounding air, which enters the house from the outside, is used for gas combustion and dilution. If the house is tightly sealed, this can lead to a problem as there will be no sufficient air coming in - other venting options should be considered.
As opposed to atmospheric type water heaters, power-vented (PV) models, also known as an induced draft or fan-assisted, can have the venting pipes installed either horizontally through the sidewall or vertically through the roof.
This is because PV models use the electric blower (fan) and dedicated vent pipes, usually made of PVC. The blower, mounted on top of the unit, guarantees proper venting and eliminates the risk of negative pressure buildup inside the home.
PV water heaters are often found on energy-efficient models and are recommended for homes without a chimney or where it is hard to install the atmospheric type. However, they are more expensive.
Direct vent water heaters (DV) also rely on the natural draft for proper venting. This type is excellent for homes with no chimney and no electric source located close to the unit. The advantage is that you will have hot water even if the power goes out.
DV models are designed with a single or dual vent pipe system. Single-vent models use the surrounding air for combustion and one vent pipe to move the exhaust gases outside the building.
Dual-vent models utilize two pipes, where one pipe is used to draw the fresh air from the outside, while the other pipe is used as an exhaust.
As the air is coming from the outdoor, DV models, do not have a problem with insufficient indoor ventilation.
Use this test to check if the venting on your gas water heater is proper:
Make sure the electrical, gas and water supply are turned off on the electrical panel, shutoff valve, and gas control valve.
Drain the water heater.
Remove the vent pipe if replacing the old model.
The tank can be filled only when the gas and water supply are connected - preferably by the licensed plumber. When the air is removed from the water heating system, the gas supply can be activated and tested for leaks. Never use a hot water heater unless it is full of water.
For the valid warranty, the reliable and safe operation of the water heater, the installation must be performed by a licensed technician.
Connecting gas piping to the heater's control valve can be accomplished by either a flexible connector or black iron pipe.
Plumbing work includes connecting your home plumbing and the cold water inlet and hot water outlet (3/4" NPT male thread), including the following elements:
The following instructions are based on the assumption that an old water heater has to be replaced.
If your home plumbing uses the galvanized pipes, remove the pipe close to the water heater and at the nearest fitting.
If it uses copper or plastic pipes, simply cut the pipe close to the water heater using the pipe cutter.
To make a connection between the water heater and plumbing, you have several options; hard or flexible connections. Flexible is better, especially when the existing pipes do not line up with the new heater connections. And it is faster to put it on. But first, check the codes.
To make the hard connections, you will need more than basic skills and the right fittings to line up the pipes, while with the copper pipes, there will be some cutting and soldering.
With the plastic pipes, it is even easier, using the right fittings and sealants where needed. Just keep the plastic pipes at least 6 inches away from the hot surfaces.
All the information about gas water heater installation you have found here is only for your reference. Our recommendation is to contact licensed installer or plumber, as the legal codes, regulations, and manufacturer's instructions need to be followed. And, remember, safety first.