Why the pilot light goes out, how it is related to improper venting of the gas water heater, and what to do about it.
The pilot outage issue, as one of the most common problems; when operating gas-fired water heaters, doesn't have to be hard to repair or find the cause, as long as good working conditions are provided. Even if it happens, troubleshooting gets easier afterward.
To avoid pilot light problems, sufficient air must be supplied to the combustion chamber for both the pilot light and the main burner, especially with a new FVIR technology that doesn't tolerate contaminated environment.
Regular burner assembly maintenance, including cleaning the flame arrestor from dirt, dust, and lint, is necessary on gas water heaters. The area where the pilot light and gas control valve is and the opening for the air intake and venting must not be restricted.
Our focus here is to explain how improper venting affects normal pilot light performance, about pilot light problems and why your water heater pilot light goes out.
A correctly sized and run venting system is also a must for regular water heater performance and efficiency.
Explore the following several reasons why your water heater pilot light goes out and how venting, for example, can cause improper water heating operation:
Poorly designed and installed venting systems and outside weather conditions can produce "capping" and force the flue to stall. This happens when the downward force of the air is equal or greater than the pilot draft in the vent, mainly due to high wind conditions.
The natural draft inside the flue won't be enough to allow products of combustion coming from the pilot flame to rise; it will be pushed down, so all the oxygen needed for gas combustion will be used up.
To prevent the pilot light from extinguishing, a vent termination has to have at least two feet extension above the roof to provide a necessary difference in pressure and allow a natural draft.
The most frequent scenario with the pilot outage is when the water heater is installed in spaces like the attic or garage and where the ventilation is the issue (insufficient amount of incoming fresh air).
Water heater installation in the attic is especially problematic due to the high temperature of the surrounding air, poor ventilation, and little to no traffic. Poor ventilation means a lack of incoming fresh air for combustion, resulting in improper gas combustion.
How to recognize improper gas combustion?
Observe what is happening inside the combustion chamber of your water heater, using the sight window on the unit, if it is present. The flame on the main burner will change the color, from light blue to yellow and red. Such a condition will also result in the flame pattern change, first, it will light smoothly, and then you will see the luminous burner flame that will eventually flatten out.
If the air surrounding the water heater is higher than the tank's set temperature during the summer months, the thermostat won't open the gas valve to light the main burner.
The heat produced by the pilot flame is not enough to make a condition for the natural draft, so all the oxygen will burn up, and the pilot light will extinguish.
Also, if there is poor ventilation, the hot air tends to rise, and the combustion air from the attic doesn't come down to provide the oxygen to the burner, resulting in the pilot outage.
Decompression happens when the inside air pressure drops below the outside pressure. Instead of having products of combustion going from the water heater out, the higher outside air pressure will push the flue gases down, causing the negative pressure, where the fresh air cannot find its way to the combustion chamber and pilot light.
The pilot light goes out as it runs out of oxygen as there is no natural draft in the flue pipe.
These three cases of improper water heater installation or venting are good examples of why to avoid installation in areas that are too small or closed rooms (attic, for example) where there is not enough air movement. Follow the codes for venting, see the requirements for air provisions and how to provide a sufficient amount of air, and what is needed when installing two or more gas appliances in the same room.
The insufficient air supply will cause recirculation of combustion products, which will contaminate the surrounding air and become hazardous to life. This will also create improper gas combustion that results in the carboning or sooting combustion chamber, burners, and flue tubes as well.
If the pilot light goes out and you smell gas leaking, turn the gas valve to OFF. If the gas smell is still present after turning the unit OFF and it doesn't dissipate, turn off the main gas valve, call the gas utility company to check, and wait for them outside.